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25 March 2011

How to write a good literature review?

Menulis thesis atau disertation adalah part yang agak sukar, kerana banyak yang salah anggap tentang apa maklumat yang perlu dimasukkan di dalam Literature Review (LR) tersebut. Tak kisah la samada ianya adalah part of PhD tesis atau report Final Year Project, LR adalah part yang paling penting kerana ia menggambarkan kebersediaan author/researcher tersebut sebelum menjalankan sesuatu research dengan adanya asas dan latar belakang yang kukuh mengenai projek atau research yang akan mereka jalankan.

Disebabkan penulis blog skrg ni sedang dalam usaha menulis LR dgn baik, elok sangatlah sekiranya penulis kongsikan sedikit ilmu yang penulis tahu serba sedikit mengenai "How to write a good Literature Review" - moga2 tulisan ini dapat dijkadikan panduan pada student2 penulis yang sekarang ni mungkin tengah buat master/phd, atau tengah menulis FYP report, ataupun bloggers/readers di luar sana yang memerlukan guidance notes mengenai LR. Bagi penulis, ini sangat penting kerana suatu hari nanti, penulis akan pulang dan mengajar semula di UiTM, dengan harapan guidance note ini dapat dijadikan rujukan in the future--penulis takut terlupa sebenarnya :p

(Source: Prof Dr Hanafi Ismail, USM, one of the top journal editor in Material Engineering)

A literature is not just a summary, but a conceptually organized synthesis of the results of your research. It must:
  • Organized information and relate it to the thesis or research question you are developing
  • Synthesize results into summary of what is isn’t known
  • Identify controversy when it appears in the literature
  • Develop question for further research

A good LR:

  • It should answer question that we are looking for
  • Use it to explain your research (the review is not meant to tell the reader what other have done)
  • It should explain why you need to do it, how you come to choose certain methodologies/theories and the outcome will add to the existing knowledge

How to do good LR:

  • Summarize the work you read and sort out what is important to your research, less important cover briefly.
  • Look for major concepts, conclusions, theories, arguments
  • Look for similarities and differences
  • Aim to evaluate and show relationship between work already done and between your work.
  • To do this, effectively and carefully planning the layout of your LR!

Plan your LR: (Source: Justus J.Randolph--thanks Leed for sharing this with me,really appreciate it and help me a lot!!)

  1. Identify type of review
    Based on your focus or goal of this review: outcomes-oriented, also deal with methodological flaws that effect the outcomes, theories that related to the phenomenon being investigate, and introduce practical applications of the knowledge that will be gained from the thesis.

  2. Problem formation
    - Begin with of the determination of the question that the LR will answer - develop research themes.
    - Determine the criteria for inclusion and exclusion (should be comprehensive enough), so that any article that comes to light could be included or excluded solely based on those criteria

  3. Data collection
    - Begin with e-database – carefully select articles-keep the record (keyword used, title, year)
    - How to locate the ‘theme’? search the references of articles that were retrieved, determine which one seem relevant, find those, read their references and repeat process until a point of saturated is reached.
    - Document the key-points from the saved articles.
    - Share the list with experts/sv/colleagues

  4. Data evaluation
    - Extract and evaluate the information in the articles that met inclusion criteria
    - Type of data that will be extracted is determined by the focus and goal of the review.
    - Extracted data must be documented
    - Identify the factors that may influence research outcomes
    - Separate both high & low quality studies and reporting the differences, if not different- grouping them into theme or similar group.
    - Identify common measure into all of research outcomes can be translated.

  5. Analysis & Interpretation
    Depend on type of data, then analyses it using quantitative/ qualitative or mixed mode methods

  6. Writing & Presentation: -At this stage, author clearly determines which information should or should not be presented and which information is more or less important.
    - Organized the information by 3 ways—historically, conceptually or methodologically.
    - Goal: increase undertstanding of the phenomena being investigated

(Source: Justus J.Randolph--thanks Leed for sharing this with me,really appreciate it and help me a lot!!)

"Sama2 kita majukan kualiti pendidikan di Malaysia dengan memberi didikan yang terbaik kepada anak bangsa;)"-- ohh I really miss lecturing...... :(




~gambar kenangan bersama Menteri KPT dan sebahagian pelajar postgrad di London~

21 March 2011

Sepetang di Primrose Hill....

Sambil menikmati musim bunga yg baru nak bermula....

menemani anak kluar jalan2....

kesian asyik terperap dlm rumah jaa sepanjang minggu...

"bird....bird...." kata Aisya Zara yg dah bule ckp ckit-ckit skrg ni :p

malu2 kucing tak reti nk berkawan lagi hehe

sian....tadak geng.....

ooo nk kawan dgn abg hensem ni rupanyaaaaa.....terpegun ok :p

punyalaa takut dgn kuda henjut nii....ehh kuda ke tu?? hehe

lama2 baru nk main2......

ibu & aisya zara quality-time

i love u!!

Aisya Zara with her achik......

kiss kiss bye bye....

13 March 2011

Trip 2: Gunwharf Quay at Portsmouth

Take-a-break from your work!
I got many good advices from frens and bloggers outhere, saying that I must relax and enjoy the phd journey. PhD is not totally about research, but it comes with a package---knowledge, time, family, life and how you manage all the combination. I've learnt something after 3monts I becoming a phd student........apabila diri rasa dah cuba sedaya upaya, try ur best, yet still get stucked somewhere, you just need to twist to other thing. forget your worklife for a while and have fun. After that, you'll be suprised with the increased productivity ;) serius!

I'd submitted literature report, and continue doing a simple experiment at the moment. semuanya berterusan, dan tak pernah tak-diberi-kerja. hehe. my supervisor continuously monitor my works and show me the path --for this, I am very grateful to have both of them. But i felt i need a break sometimes ;) So here we go........To the one best-UK-must visit-place...The Gunwharf Quay at Portsmouth where over 85 designer outlets are there, ka-ching!! Most of the items are factory-outlet, so you'll be suprised with the price!! (Click here for more details about Gunwharf Quay) Plus the location is only about 2hours from London city, and promised you a spectacular sea-view ;) shopping complex di tepi laut..ala2 Quennsbay Penang gitu...hehe...

It's a Spring trip ;)

Me, aisya zara and my sis in law ;)

Nasi minyak dan ayam masak kicap, bawak dari dapur saya :p
makan berjemaah tepi laut....macam ni la bila di luar negara...nak makan kat kedai samada tadak Halal or mahal, so kena la masak awal2 dan buat bekalan.....


Aisya zara yg mengeliat kesejukan......ibunya terlupa bawak baju sejuk dia la pulak...syiann dia tau....

terpaksa laa ibunya belikan yang baru...it's from Baby GAP outlet ;) and also i bought her a GAP jeans and a cardigan ;) histeria bila tgk baju baby lawa2 dan murahhhhh........sungguh tak keruan...haishhhh :p


tengok tu...beria-ria nak masuk perfume shop...... :p

tengok tu...dia yang paling happy.....

Ralph Lauren, Burberry, Clarks, Ted Baker, levi's, Calvin Klein and many more are there ;)

My hubby rewarded himself with a jacket from Timberland....he said it is a good bargain...but i am sure, it is not that jacket in the above pics :p Dan saya sorang yang tak beli apa2 for myself, except clothes for my baby and two ceramic pots for home-deco ;) But i really enjoy our family time there, and wish to come here again......bila balik asyik dok teringat Levi's.........20 pound jee.......gilaa murah............

ok, better stop now, bye, love u ols and thanks for reading my blog ;)
wish you have a good time too ;)

notakaki: Salam takziah utk mangsa2 tsunami dan gempa bumi di Jepun terutamanya rakyat2 Malaysia di sana. Semoga keadaan pulih dgn segera. Sama2 kita doakan keselamatan dan kesejahteraan mereka di sana.

10 March 2011

3rd Anniversary in London



~08-03-08~


1st anniversary on 2009- in Perlis, I was 3-months pregnant, and still in recovering period after had a major operation to remove an ovarian cyst.




2nd anniversary on 2010- with beautiful 7-months baby ;)

3rd anniversary on 2011-in London, di mana si isteri pergi sekolah pagi sampai petang, dan petang sampai malam pulak si suami pergi kerja..beressss....no celebration at all :p apa yang kami mampu buat ialah.......main tukar2 adiah jaa...hehee...cam budak2 sekolah menengah dulu...hehe....


Hugo Boss Orange for him...... :)

Iphone 4 for me......merasa la jugak akhirnya gadget canggih ni :p

Dan si anak kecik ni hanya memerhati jaa tak dapat apa2...hehe..sbb bukan besday dia kan...hehe....tunggu next august yer ;)

tengok tu.........buat muka busyuk tuu.....

Above of all, she is the most prettiest gift for our 3rd wedding anniversary ;)



06 March 2011

Terkadang hidup memang berat....

"....Terkadang hidup memang berat, membuat kita hampir menyerah...tapi aku percaya Kaulah pelindungku, penciptaku dan hidupku, sabarkan hatiku, kuatkan imanku, berkati aku dan keluargaku dgn rahmatMu......"

Genap 3bulan aku bergelar sebagai pelajar. Sungguh tak percaya, cabaran begitu besar, perlukan pengorbanan yg begitu banyak, kesabaran, kecekalan, kekuatan fizikal dan mental. Begitu juga kepantasan dalam memahami benda baru dan membuat penilaian dgn betol. Aku cabar diri aku utk siapkan PhD dalam masa 3 tahun. ada org ketawakan aku kah?? atau hanya kata itu angan2 Mat Jenin?? Biar apa kata org, aku tetap dgn impian dan angan2 aku. Bukankah benar, tanpa angan2 dan mimpi, kita takkan pernah tahu apa yang kita inginkan utk masa depan kita? Sebelum aku bertolak ke UK....ini antara yang aku dengar......


"susah oooo phd di luar negara.."
"..mesti setiap sorang ada lah cabaran nya..."
"phd bukan saja mencabar minda..tapi menguji semua kekuatan dalaman.."
"kalo takde problem dgn supervisor, mesti ada problem dgn experiment, takpun masa tulih tesis..."
"...jaga suami elok2...takut suami pulak stress isteri sibuk belajar.."
"..UCL is a good school...just beware of their quality standard.."



Dan tak akan aku lupakan juga nasihat2 yang sangat bermakna dalam hidup aku sebelum aku sampai di bumi asing ini, terutamanya dari my family, my in-law family, best friends dan rakan seperjuangan di UiTM dan UniMAP. dan juga kata2 nasihat dari rakan2 UiTM yang baru pulang dari UK, US dan Germany dgn ijazah PhD di tangan..Dr David, Dr Low, Dr Jamaludin, Dr Yati antara yang berjaya habiskan PhD mereka genap 3 tahun....kesmuanya bawa family, ada pasangan dan anak2 kecuali Dr low...kesemua resepi kejayaan mereka aku cuba jadikan panduan, cuba praktikkan dan juga simpan ia kemas diblog aku (klik di sini)...moga2 aku juga sperti mereka suatu hari nanti...maka aku datang ke cni penuh dgn harapan dan cita2...cepat2 buat kerja dan pulang dgn ijazah PhD....tapi kadang2 Allah itu mahu menguji kekuatan hambaNya dan kerbergantungan hambaNya padaNya.....dan aku lah antara org2 yang diuji itu......

Tahukah Tuhanmu selalu hidup di dalam hatimu
Cinta dari-Nya menjawab semua masalahmu
Dia mendengar....dan melihat...
Bersyukurlah terus tanpa kenal waktu
Serahkan....ikhlaskan....pasrahkanlah hanya kepada-Nya
Cinta-Nya adalah jawaban-Nya
karena Tuhanlah Maha Cinta.......
---Tuhan Maha Cinta by Nidji


Setiap hari rasa takut, rasa ilmu tak cukup, perlu belajar banyak, dalam masa yang sama...menuntut pengorbanan sebagai seorang ibu dan isteri..setiap kali nak antar report kat supervisor, mesti terkena sindrom seram sejuk, takut2 dan Aisya Zara kurang sehat! 3 kali nak antar report, 3kali jugak Aisya Zara demam! begitu juga aku, sampai demam muntah2 masa kali kedua nak antar report haritu....ntah apa kena dgn aku pun taktau....rasa macam segala benda tak kena, stress dan stress belum cukup bagus, kena buat lagi, kena pulun lagi.....dan masa pulak cepat sgt berlalu...sedar tak sedar, dah 3 bulan rupanya aku bergelar student dan berat badan pula tiba2 menurun tanpa disedari.....

I lost 4 kg in 3-months.....padahal cukup je makan...tak sangka bila buat PhD dapat skali pakej kuruskan badan...huhuhu...

Jumaat lepas, due date to submit my 4th report...i made myself a promise, never post any blog entry if my research report does not yet finish..and i made it! yeay! :) sbb tu ler blog i lama bersawang.....minggu lepas juga banyak bersembang dgn supervisor pasal research and got to know many things when spoke to them....and felt sooo relieved!! Ntah macam mana...dalam kekalutan nak hantar report...rasa semcama Tuhan tiba2 bukakan pintu ilmuNya, hidayahNya dan hikmahNya kepada aku, hamba yg lemah ni....rasa mcm segala ketakutan, rasa berdebar2 selama ni mulai menghilang dalam diri........alhamdulillah sgt2....terkadang rasa hidup memang berat...tapi hikmah yang aku dapat ialah....hidup mesti diteruskan...jalan mesti ke depan.....walau macamana stress skalipun..mesti cari jalan tuk hilangkan stress...kan ;)

Jumaat hantar report, Sabtu dan Ahad masa utk melepaskan tension...dgn main2 dgn anak sepuas-puasnya....my lil'angel, Aisya Zara....

Dan juga lepaskan stress di shopping mall.......terapi ni rasanya yang paling berkesan!!! ;)

I got myself two t-shirts....i liked the shoe-printed by the way ;)


a pair of 2-inch leather tap shoes by Clarks...ohh spring is just around the corner ;)


All of these for face and body --new lipstick, face foundation, body scrub, butter and got free eyliner, ka-ching!! ---> stress releived!!

Dan benda ni.....yang aku sendiri pun taktau bila nak pakai...yang aku tau...stress relieved!! :p

Gorgeous bag by Moschino....but not yet buy it :p Saja pose je...kot2 la ada org berkenan nak kirim ;) and i received so many email about being their personal shopper...yeap i did it to some of them, shopped for them and shipped the items back to Malaysia..but do understand it is solely based on my free-time only...

Ohh I wish I will have this on my 3-rd wedding anniversary which is due on this comin Tuesday ;) Limited edition Longchamp Le Pliage Eiffel Tower bag..isnt it beautiful?? ;)

Till then, bye, love u ols....

Salam dari London,

Bibi @Tulip-the white shing star