Disebabkan penulis blog skrg ni sedang dalam usaha menulis LR dgn baik, elok sangatlah sekiranya penulis kongsikan sedikit ilmu yang penulis tahu serba sedikit mengenai "How to write a good Literature Review" - moga2 tulisan ini dapat dijkadikan panduan pada student2 penulis yang sekarang ni mungkin tengah buat master/phd, atau tengah menulis FYP report, ataupun bloggers/readers di luar sana yang memerlukan guidance notes mengenai LR. Bagi penulis, ini sangat penting kerana suatu hari nanti, penulis akan pulang dan mengajar semula di UiTM, dengan harapan guidance note ini dapat dijadikan rujukan in the future--penulis takut terlupa sebenarnya :p
(Source: Prof Dr Hanafi Ismail, USM, one of the top journal editor in Material Engineering)
A literature is not just a summary, but a conceptually organized synthesis of the results of your research. It must:
- Organized information and relate it to the thesis or research question you are developing
- Synthesize results into summary of what is isn’t known
- Identify controversy when it appears in the literature
- Develop question for further research
A good LR:
- It should answer question that we are looking for
- Use it to explain your research (the review is not meant to tell the reader what other have done)
- It should explain why you need to do it, how you come to choose certain methodologies/theories and the outcome will add to the existing knowledge
How to do good LR:
- Summarize the work you read and sort out what is important to your research, less important cover briefly.
- Look for major concepts, conclusions, theories, arguments
- Look for similarities and differences
- Aim to evaluate and show relationship between work already done and between your work.
- To do this, effectively and carefully planning the layout of your LR!
Plan your LR: (Source: Justus J.Randolph--thanks Leed for sharing this with me,really appreciate it and help me a lot!!)
- Identify type of review
Based on your focus or goal of this review: outcomes-oriented, also deal with methodological flaws that effect the outcomes, theories that related to the phenomenon being investigate, and introduce practical applications of the knowledge that will be gained from the thesis.
- Problem formation
- Begin with of the determination of the question that the LR will answer - develop research themes.
- Determine the criteria for inclusion and exclusion (should be comprehensive enough), so that any article that comes to light could be included or excluded solely based on those criteria
- Data collection
- Begin with e-database – carefully select articles-keep the record (keyword used, title, year)
- How to locate the ‘theme’? search the references of articles that were retrieved, determine which one seem relevant, find those, read their references and repeat process until a point of saturated is reached.
- Document the key-points from the saved articles.
- Share the list with experts/sv/colleagues
- Data evaluation
- Extract and evaluate the information in the articles that met inclusion criteria
- Type of data that will be extracted is determined by the focus and goal of the review.
- Extracted data must be documented
- Identify the factors that may influence research outcomes
- Separate both high & low quality studies and reporting the differences, if not different- grouping them into theme or similar group.
- Identify common measure into all of research outcomes can be translated.
- Analysis & Interpretation
Depend on type of data, then analyses it using quantitative/ qualitative or mixed mode methods
- Writing & Presentation: -At this stage, author clearly determines which information should or should not be presented and which information is more or less important.
- Organized the information by 3 ways—historically, conceptually or methodologically.
- Goal: increase undertstanding of the phenomena being investigated
(Source: Justus J.Randolph--thanks Leed for sharing this with me,really appreciate it and help me a lot!!)
"Sama2 kita majukan kualiti pendidikan di Malaysia dengan memberi didikan yang terbaik kepada anak bangsa;)"-- ohh I really miss lecturing...... :(
~gambar kenangan bersama Menteri KPT dan sebahagian pelajar postgrad di London~